CERRE has published its new report “Development of rail freight in Europe: what regulation can and cannot do”. This study analyses the competitive landscape and regulatory framework for rail freight in Europe. It demonstrates that competition is a source of dynamism in a lot of countries, but that intra modal competition alone is not enough. In particular, the study shows that in order to foster the development of rail freight and fulfil its green potential, better regulation is needed along with measures to create a level playing field among the different modes of freight transport. Among its key recommendations, the report asks regulators, the European Commission and other public authorities in charge of rail policy to: create a true level playing field for all modes of transport to compete on merit; ensure equitable access to train paths and to essential facilities for all; and encourage better coordination between the different modes at the national and international level.